Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion the this chapter, you will certainly be may be to:

understand the background and advance of networking technologies;define the crucial terms linked with networking technologies;understand the prominence of broadband technologies; anddescribe business networking.

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Please note, over there is one updated edition of this book available at https://opentextbook.site. If you space not forced to use this edition for a course, you may want to check it out.

Introduction

In the at an early stage days that computing, computers were checked out as gadgets for make calculations, save data, and automating company processes. However, as the gadgets evolved, that became evident that countless of the features of telecommunications can be integrated into the computer. Throughout the 1980s, many organizations began combining their once-separate telecommunications and information-systems departments right into an details technology, or IT, department. This capacity for computer systems to communicate with one an additional and, maybe much more importantly, come facilitate communication between individuals and also groups, has actually been an important factor in the development of computer over the previous several decades.

Computer networking really began in the 1960s v the birth of the Internet, as we’ll check out below. However, when the Internet and also web were evolving, this firm networking was likewise taking form in the form of regional area networks and client-server computing. In the 1990s, when the net came of age, net technologies began to pervade all locations of the organization. Now, v the internet a an international phenomenon, it would be unthinkable to have actually a computer that did not include communications capabilities. This thing will review the various technologies that have actually been put in place to allow this communications revolution.

A Brief history of the Internet

In the Beginning: ARPANET

The story the the Internet, and also networking in general, have the right to be traced ago to the late 1950s. The us was in the depth of the Cold War with the USSR, and also each country closely watched the various other to identify which would obtain a military or intelligence advantage. In 1957, the Soviets surprised the US through the start of Sputnik, propelling us into the an are age. In an answer to Sputnik, the us Government produced the progressed Research Projects firm (ARPA), whose initial duty was to ensure that the us was no surprised again. It was from ARPA, now called DARPA (Defense Advanced Research projects Agency), the the Internet an initial sprang.

ARPA to be the center of computer research in the 1960s, yet there was simply one problem: plenty of of the computers could not talk to each other. In 1968, ARPA sent out a request for proposals for a communication technology that would permit different computer systems located about the country to be incorporated together right into one network. Twelve carriers responded to the request, and a company named Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) winner the contract. They began work appropriate away and also were maybe to finish the job just one year later: in September, 1969, the ARPANET to be turned on. The first four nodes were at UCLA, Stanford, MIT, and also the college of Utah.

The Internet and also the World broad Web

Over the following decade, the ARPANET grew and also gained popularity. Throughout this time, other networks likewise came into existence. Different organizations were linked to various networks. This caused a problem: the networks can not speak to each other. Every network supplied its own proprietary language, or protocol (see sidebar for the an interpretation of protocol), to send information ago and forth. This difficulty was addressed by the creation of transmission manage protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP to be designed to allow networks running on various protocols to have an intermediary protocol that would enable them come communicate. For this reason as long as your network sustained TCP/IP, you could communicate with every one of the other networks running TCP/IP. TCP/IP quickly became the standard protocol and enabled networks to communicate with each other. The is native this breakthrough the we an initial got the ax Internet, which simply method “an interconnected network of networks.”

Sidebar: An web Vocabulary Lesson

Networking communication is complete of some really technical concepts based on some basic principles. Discover the terms below and you’ll have the ability to hold your very own in a conversation around the Internet.

Packet: The fundamental unit of data sent over the Internet. When a an equipment intends come send a article to another machine (for example, your pc sends a inquiry to YouTube to open a video), it breaks the blog post down into smaller pieces, dubbed packets. Every packet has actually the sender’s address, the destination address, a sequence number, and a item of the overall message to it is in sent.Hub: A simple network maker that associate other devices to the network and also sends packets to all the devices associated to it.Bridge: A network device that connects two networks together and also only allows packets with that are needed.Switch: A network machine that associate multiple devices together and also filters packets based on their destination within the linked devices. Router: A maker that receives and analyzes packets and then paths them in the direction of their destination. In some cases, a router will send a packet to an additional router; in various other cases, it will certainly send it directly to that is destination.DNS: DNS represents “domain name system,” which acts together the brochure on the Internet. Once a inquiry to accessibility a machine with a domain surname is given, a DNS server is queried. It returns the IP address of the machine requested, enabling for ideal routing.Protocol: In computer networking, a protocol is the set of rule that permit two (or more) tools to exchange information earlier and forth across the network.

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Worldwide net use over 24-hour duration (click to walk to site of origin). (Public Domain. Courtesy that the net Census 2012 project.)

As we moved right into the 1980s, computer systems were added to the internet at raising rate. These computers were mainly from government, academic, and also research organizations. Much to the surprised of the engineers, the at an early stage popularity the the internet was driven by the usage of digital mail (see sidebar below).

Using the net in these early on days was no easy. In bespeak to access information on another server, you had to know just how to kind in the regulates necessary to access it, and know the surname of that device. That all readjusted in 1990, as soon as Tim Berners-Lee introduced his World broad Web project, which detailed an easy means to navigate the net through the usage of linked text (hypertext). The World broad Web gained even an ext steam v the relax of the Mosaic internet browser in 1993, which enabled graphics and also text to be merged together as a way to existing information and navigate the Internet. The Mosaic internet browser took off in popularity and also was soon superseded by Netscape Navigator, the an initial commercial web browser, in 1994. The Internet and the World vast Web were currently poised for growth. The chart below shows the growth in customers from the at an early stage days till now.

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Growth of internet usage, 1995–2012 (click come enlarge). Data taken indigenous InternetWorldStats.com.

The Dot-Com Bubble

In the 1980s and early 1990s, the net was being managed by the national Science foundation (NSF). The NSF had restricted commercial ventures on the Internet, which supposed that no one can buy or offer anything online. In 1991, the NSF transferred its duty to three various other organizations, thus getting the US government out of direct manage over the Internet and also essentially opened up business online.

This brand-new commercialization of the net led come what is now known as the dot-com bubble. A frenzy of invest in new dot-com suppliers took place in the so late 1990s, to run up the stock market to brand-new highs on a daily basis. This investment bubble was moved by the fact that investors knew the online business would adjust everything. Unfortunately, many of these new companies had negative business models and ended up with little to display for every one of the funds that were invested in them. In 2000 and also 2001, the balloon burst and many the these new companies went the end of business. Many companies likewise survived, consisting of the still-thriving Amazon (started in 1994) and also eBay (1995). After the dot-com bubble burst, a brand-new reality ended up being clear: in bespeak to succeed online, e-business companies would need to construct real company models and also show that they can survive financially using this new technology.

Web 2.0

In the first couple of years of the World large Web, creating and also putting up a website compelled a specific collection of knowledge: you had actually to know just how to collection up a server on the World vast Web, how to get a domain name, exactly how to write net pages in HTML, and also how to troubleshoot miscellaneous technical issues as they came up. Someone that did these tasks for a website became known together a webmaster.

As the web acquired in popularity, it became much more and an ext apparent that those who did not have the skills to be a webmaster still want to produce online content and also have their very own piece the the web. This require was met with brand-new technologies that listed a website frame for those who wanted to placed content online. Blogger and Wikipedia are examples of these at an early stage Web 2.0 applications, which allowed anyone through something to say a location to go and also say it, without the need for expertise HTML or web-server technology.

Starting in the at an early stage 2000s, internet 2.0 applications began a 2nd bubble the optimism and also investment. It seemed that everyone want their own blog or photo-sharing site. Below are some of the suppliers that came of age during this time: MySpace (2003), Photobucket (2003), Flickr (2004), on facebook (2004), WordPress (2005), Tumblr (2006), and also Twitter (2006). The ultimate indication that web 2.0 had taken host was as soon as Time magazine called “You” that is “Person the the Year” in 2006.

Sidebar: E-mail Is the “Killer” app for the Internet

When the an individual computer was created, it to be a good little toy for technology hobbyists and armchair programmers. As soon as the spreadsheet to be invented, however, businesses take it notice, and the remainder is history. The spreadsheet to be the killer app for the personal computer: people bought PCs simply so they might run spreadsheets.

The net was initially designed as a way for scientists and researchers to share information and also computing power among themselves. However, as soon as digital mail to be invented, it started driving need for the Internet. This wasn’t what the developers had in mind, however it turned the end that human being connecting to civilization was the killer app for the Internet.

We room seeing this again now with society networks, particularly Facebook. Numerous who weren’t convinced to have actually an online presence currently feel left out without a on facebook account. The relations made between people using net 2.0 applications like Facebook top top their an individual computer or smartphone is driving growth yet again.

Sidebar: The Internet and the World large Web are Not the same Thing

Many times, the terms “Internet” and also “World broad Web,” or also just “the web,” are provided interchangeably. Yet really, they are not the exact same thing at all! The internet is one interconnected network the networks. Plenty of services run throughout the Internet: electronic mail, voice and video, file transfers, and, yes, the World vast Web.

The World wide Web is just one piece of the Internet. It is consisted of of web servers that have actually HTML pages that are being perceived on gadgets with internet browsers. The is really the simple.

The expansion of Broadband

In the early days the the Internet, most accessibility was excellent via a modem over an analog phone call line. A modem (short because that “modulator-demodulator”) was linked to the incoming call line and also a computer in stimulate to attach you come a network. Speeds were measured in bits-per-second (bps), v speeds growing from 1200 bps come 56,000 bps over the years. Connection to the web via these modems is dubbed dial-up access. Dial-up was an extremely inconvenient due to the fact that it tied increase the call line. As the internet became more and much more interactive, dial-up likewise hindered usage, as individuals wanted to transfer an ext and an ext data. Together a point of reference, downloading and install a common 3.5 mb track would take it 24 minute at 1200 bps and 2 minutes at 28,800 bps.

A broadband connection is defined as one that has actually speeds that at least 256,000 bps, though most connections this particular day are lot faster, measure up in numerous bits per second (megabits or mbps) or also billions (gigabits). For the home user, a broadband connection is usually accomplished via the cable television lines or phone present (DSL). Both cable and also DSL have comparable prices and also speeds, though every individual may find that one is much better than the various other for their certain area. Speeds because that cable and also DSL can vary during various times of the work or week, depending on how lot data web traffic is being used. In more remote areas, where cable and phone companies perform not provide access, residence Internet connections have the right to be made via satellite. The average house broadband rate is anywhere in between 3 mbps and 30 mbps. In ~ 10 mbps, downloading a usual 3.5 mb track would take much less than a second. For businesses who require more bandwidth and reliability, telecommunications providers can administer other options, such as T1 and T3 lines.

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Growth that broadband usage (Source: Pew Internet and also American Life task Surveys)

Broadband access is important because it effects how the web is used. When a community has access to broadband, it enables them come interact much more online and also increases the intake of digital tools overall. Accessibility to broadband is now thought about a simple human right by the unified Nations, as declared in your 2011 statement:

“Broadband modern technologies are basically transforming the way we live,” the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, collection up last year by the UN Educational scientific and cultural Organization (UNESCO) and also the UN international Telecommunications Union (ITU), stated in issuing “The Broadband Challenge” at a leadership summit in Geneva.

“It is vital that no one be excluded native the new worldwide knowledge societies we space building. We believe that interaction is not simply a person need – the is a right.”<1>

Wireless Networking

Today us are supplied to being able to accessibility the internet wherever we go. Our smartphones can access the Internet; Starbucks offers wireless “hotspots” because that our laptop computers or iPads. These wireless technologies have actually made net access much more convenient and have made tools such as tablets and laptops much an ext functional. Let’s study a few of this wireless technologies.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a an innovation that take away an internet signal and converts it right into radio waves. These radio waves can be choose up within a radius of about 65 feet by gadgets with a wireless adapter. Numerous Wi-Fi specifications have actually been arisen over the years, starting with 802.11b (1999), adhered to by the 802.11g specification in 2003 and also 802.11n in 2009. Each new specification boosted the rate and variety of Wi-Fi, enabling for much more uses. One of the primary areas where Wi-Fi is being used is in the home. House users room purchasing Wi-Fi routers, connecting lock to their broadband connections, and then connecting multiple devices via Wi-Fi.

Mobile Network

As the cellphone has progressed into the smartphone, the desire for Internet accessibility on these devices has caused data networks being had as component of the mobile call network. While internet connections were technically available earlier, it to be really v the relax of the 3G networks in 2001 (2002 in the US) that smartphones and also other cellular gadgets could access data indigenous the Internet. This new capability journey the sector for new and an ext powerful smartphones, such together the iPhone, introduced in 2007. In 2011, wireless carriers started offering 4G data speeds, offering the moving networks the very same speeds the customers were supplied to acquiring via their home connection.

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Sidebar: Why Doesn’t my Cellphone work When I take trip Abroad?

As mobile call technologies have actually evolved, providers in different nations have preferred different communication standards for your mobile call networks. In the US, both the the two contending standards exist: GSM (used by AT&T and T-Mobile) and also CDMA (used by the other significant carriers). Each standard has its pros and also cons, but the bottom heat is the phones utilizing one conventional cannot easily switch come the other. In the US, this is not a huge deal due to the fact that mobile networks exist to support both standards. But when you travel to other countries, girlfriend will uncover that most of them usage GSM networks, with the one large exception being Japan, which has standardized ~ above CDMA. That is possible for a cell phone phone making use of one type of network to move to the other type of network through switching the end the center card, i m sorry controls your accessibility to the mobile network. However, this will certainly not work in all cases. If you room traveling abroad, that is always best to consult with your cell phone provider to recognize the best means to accessibility a mobile network.