Pressure gradient is the circulation rate the a liquid through a pipe. This is directly proportional come the difference in between the pressure at the two ends of the pipe and also inversely proportional come the pip’s resistance. The pressure gradient is straight dependent ~ above blood ship radius which essentially controls blood flow. The bigger the blood courage radius, the more blood circulation or liquid flow. The smaller blood ship radius, the lesson blood or fluid flow.
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2. Describe the effect that the flow tube radius readjust had on circulation rate. Exactly how well walk the results compare v your prediction?
Flow tube radius readjust has a straight effect on flow rate. As evidenced in this lab, when circulation tube radius to be increased, the circulation rate was additionally increased. Lock are directly proportional. As shown from the text, when circulation tube radius boosts in a blood vessel, the circulation rate is lot more totally free flowing and flows a lot faster as the radius is increased.
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When starting with 1.5mm that radius, the flow was really slow, yet when enhanced to 2mm, 3mm, and also eventually come 5mm, the circulation within the blood ship incrementally increased.
3. Explain the impact that radius transforms have ~ above the laminar circulation of a fluid.
Laminar circulation is defined as the free-flowing blood in the center of the vessel. Radius readjust is straight proportional top top laminar flow. In a constricted vessel, proportionately more blood is in call with the vessel wall and over there is much less laminar flow, significantly diminishing the price of blood circulation in the vessel, however if the courage is an ext dilated, or the radius is increased, more blood circulation is maybe to gain in, thus increasing the blood flow.
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The bigger the radius, the much more laminar flow of fluid.
4. Why carry out you think the plot was no linear? (Hint: look at the partnership of the variables in the equation). Exactly how well did the outcomes compare with your prediction?
If the variables are radius ~ above the X-axis and also flow price on the Y-axis, the experiment called for the experimenter to incrementally boost the radius and also plot the results. Together we know, radius is directly proportional to flow rate in that as the radius increases so go the circulation rate, therefore, the plotted graph needs to be linear. If one increases, so does the other going in a directly line!
Activity 2 Questions:
1. Define the components in the blood that impact viscosity?
The materials in the blood that impact viscosity room the presences that plasma proteins and also formed elements such as white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and also platelets. As soon as these formed elements and also plasma proteins in the blood slide previous one another, over there is boost in the resistance to flow.
2. Define the effect that the viscosity change had on flow rate. Just how well go the results compare through your prediction?
Viscosity is characterized as the thickness or stickiness of a fluid. In regards to circulation rate, they space inversely comparable and also thus as you increase viscosity or the “thickness” that the blood, the circulation rate decreases. As checked out in the graph, enhancing the viscosity inversely reduce the circulation rate each time you increased it through 1.
3. Describe the graph of flow versus viscosity.
As evidenced in the graph, the constants in this experiment to be radius, length, and pressure. The variables were flow rate and also viscosity. The y axis represented flow rate and the x axis represented viscosity. As viscosity increased, the circulation rate reduced causing a straight or train station curve connection going down.
4. Comment on the impact that polycythemia would have actually on viscosity and on blood flow.
Polycythemia is a condition in i beg your pardon excess red blood cells room present. We learned previously that an increase in red blood cells outcomes in an increase in blood viscosity. Boost in blood viscosity straight affects blood flow, in the blood flow would decrease. Thus, the presence of polycythemia would certainly inversely impact blood circulation rate by decreasing it.
Activity 3 Questions:
1. Which is much more likely to occur, a change in blood ship radius or a readjust in blood vessel length?
A change in blood vessel radius is more like come occur because blood vessel size only boosts as we grow into maturity and in adulthood blood vessel lengths stay constant. The only possibility that blood courage length an altering is when we obtain or lose weight. With the process of vasodilation, or the smoothing that the blood ship muscle, girlfriend can readjust the radius that the vessel much more frequently.
2. Define the effect that the adjust in blood ship length had actually on flow rate. How well walk the results compare v your prediction?
Blood vessel length, when boosted causes much more friction or resistance therefore making that more difficult for blood to flow through the vessel. In summation, raising blood vessel size inversely results flow rate yet decreasing flow rate. Mine prediction was that an increase in blood vessel size would inversely effect blood flow. As evidenced in this experiment, v the boost of the blood ship length, there to be a to decrease in blood flow.
3. Describe why girlfriend think blood ship radius can have a larger effect on the body that transforms in blood courage length.
In the blood flow equation (as seen to the right), blood flow is straight proportional come the fourth power of vessel radius. Dramatic alters happen in regards to blood flow since of little changes in blood vessel radius. The smaller sized the blood vessel radius, the greater the resistance. Blood ship radius is the single most vital factor in determining blood circulation resistance.
4. Describe the result that obesity would have actually on blood flow and why.
As referenced indigenous this experiment, weight, either gain or loss results blood ship length. A change in blood vessel length deserve to only be altered through the obtain or lose of weight. As confirmed in this experiment, once blood vessel length is raised as a result of weight gain, there is greater resistance or friction in ~ the vessel making blood flow through the vessel more challenging thus diminish blood flow. Obesity various effect blood flow in that, there are raised blood ship lengths, causing better friction or resistance within the vessel and also a diminish in blood flow.
Activity 4 Questions:
1. Explain the result that pressure alters had on circulation rate. Just how well walk the results compare through your prediction.
Pressure alters have a profound effect on circulation rate. As press increases, flow rate additionally increases. Castle are directly proportional. In regards to mine prediction, i predicted the as pressure increased, therefore would circulation rate.
2. Just how does the plot differ from the plots for pipe radius, viscosity, and tube length? exactly how well did the results compare through your prediction.
The plot for press in straight in that, an increase in pressure is straight proportional to circulation rate. It to be a perfectly directly line upwards as press increased. In regards come the plot for pipe radius, it to be very similar in that outcomes were an ext curve shaped yet went in the same directly upward. As vessel radius boosted so did circulation rate. In regards to viscosity, castle were considerably different, together viscosity increased, the rate of circulation decreased because there was more resistance. In regards to pipe length, this is drastically various than pressure since with boost in pipe length, over there is a decrease in price of flow due to the fact that there is much more resistance in ~ the vessel itself. After finding out that courage radius is the greatest aspect in regards to flow rate, i predicted the with boost in push there would likewise be rise in circulation rate.
3. Describe why pressure transforms are not the best means to manage blood flow.
Pressure alters are no the best method to control blood flow since it can place more stress on the heart (which causes the initial pressure) and requires the heart to change its force of contraction. The blood vessels require time come respond come that change in force and also the big arteries approximately the heart. It forced for them to have an ext tissue in your tunics to accommodate the heart and also it’s increase of force. Plus, the best method to control blood flow, as viewed from these experiments is through raising vessel radius.
4. Use you data to calculation the rise in flow rate in ml/min/mm Hg.
In this experiment, radius, viscosity, and length stayed constant, and also pressure and also flow rate were the variables. I began off with a press of 25 mm Hg and also the circulation rate was 35mm/min. As I boost the push by 25 mm Hg every time, the circulation rate boosted by around 35 mm/min every time.
Activity 5 Questions:
1. Describe the effect of boosting the right circulation tube radius on the flow rate, resistance, and also pump rate.
Increasing the right flow tube radius is straight proportional to increasing circulation rate. As shown in other experiments, boosting tube radius decreases resistance hence increasing flow rate. In addition, as the right flow tube radius increased, therefore did the pump rate. Each time that I enhanced the right circulation tube radius by .5mm, the pump rate enhanced as did the circulation rate since of the diminish in resistance.
2. Define what the left and also right beakers in the experiment exchange mail to in the human heart.
The left beaker to represent the side of the heart whereby blood is pumped with the lungs to the opposite next of the heart. The right beaker to represent the next of the heart that delivers blood to the device of the body.
3. Briefly define how the person heart can compensate for circulation rate changes to preserve blood pressure. The human being heart compensates for flow rate transforms by changing heart rate, hit volume or resistance. If resistance decreases, love rate have the right to increase to preserve the pressure difference. If resistance is decreasing, there is rise in flow rate.
Activity 6 Questions:
1. Describe the Frank-Starling regulation in the heart.
The Frank-Starling law in the heart describes when more than the regular volume that blood is went back to the heart by the venous system. In this process, the love is extended which outcomes in a an ext forceful contraction of the ventricles. This causes more than normal amounts of blood to be ejected by the heart which raises stroke volume.
2. Describe what happened to the pump rate as soon as you increased the punch volume. Why execute you think this occurred? exactly how well walk the results compare with your prediction?
When you boost the punch volume, there is an train station decrease in pump rate, even though there is a constant amount of flow that results. This is directly the the opposite of mine predictions, yet ns learned that the factor why pump price decreases when stroke volume rises is because the heart intrinsically changes stroke volume to accommodate transforms in preload or during the period where the ventricles room stretched by the finish diastolic volume. Punch volume is also controlled by the strength and also force of contractility that the heart.
3. Define how the heart changes stroke volume?
The heart transforms stroke volume by transforming the pump volume or the contractility. By changing the contractility, you are altering the toughness of the cardiac muscle contraction and its capability to generate force.
4. Describe the intrinsic factors that regulate stroke volume.
The intrinsic factors that control stroke volume are heart rate and cardiac output. Full blood circulation is proportional to cardiac output. Thus, as soon as the stroke volume decreases, the heart price music rise to preserve cardiac output. Yet, as soon as stroke volume increases, the love rate have to decrease to keep cardiac output.
Activity 7 Questions:
1. Define how the heart might compensate for transforms in peripheral resistance.
The heart can compensate for alters in peripheral resistance by diminish blood viscosity and through adjusting the pressure of convulsion of the heart. Raising contractility or forcing convulsion of the heart combats afterload and also blood flow resistance. Boosting contractility will increase cardiac output by boosting stroke volume.
2. I m sorry mechanism had actually the greatest compensatory effect? just how well did the outcomes compare through your prediction?
My prediction to be that enhancing the left flow tube radius would have the greatest affect in regards come blood circulation into the ideal tube, but adjusting the pressure of convulsion of the heart had the best compensatory result on the flow of blood right into the best beaker.
3. Describe what taken place when the pump pressure and the beaker push were the same. How well go the outcomes compare with your prediction?
When the pump pressure and the beaker press were the same, the valve would certainly not open because there was inadequate driving pressure to force liquid out that the pump. This was adverse to mine prediction, wherein I predicted the there would be an increase of flow, yet I was incorrect, in that nothing happened and also there to be no flow.
4. Define whether it would be far better to adjust heart rate or blood ship diameter to achieve blood flow changes at a regional level.
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I think that it would certainly be better to adjust heart rate in order to attain blood flow alters at a regional level. Although the text and also experiments have demonstrated that it is much more effective to boost blood vessel diameter in bespeak to rise the price of circulation within blood vessels, ns think the exercise boosts your heart rate which is directly linked to rise in blood flow.