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Figure 1.1 – these models show 6 main varieties of plate tectonic boundaries. Blue suggests ocean, eco-friendly indicates land, brown suggests the lithosphere, and also orange is the asthenosphere. The bolder arrows on the plates indicate their loved one motion. Additionally shown room gray volcanoes. Ocean-ocean transform borders (not shown) exist on a small scale connected with spreading at mid-ocean ridges, and also continent-ocean transform and also divergent limits are rarely (former) or don’t exist (latter). Photo credit: adapted from Wikimedia Commons user Domdomegg, CC BY.

You are watching: Plate tectonic boundaries were first identified by ________.


When Alfred Wegener came up through his continent drift theory in the early 1900s, he supplied several present of proof to assistance his idea. He likewise proposed that 200 million years ago, every continents were with each other in a solitary supercontinent referred to as Pangea. In this exercise, you will usage the to the right of the continents and also matching fossil evidence to piece together Pangea. This exercise is adjusted from “This Dynamic Planet” by the USGS.

Individually or together a group, piece together the supercontinent Pangea.Label the landmasses of every continent in number 1.2.Color the fossil areas to complement the legend below.Cut out each of the continents follow me the edge of the continental shelf (the outermost dark line).Try come logically item the continents together so the they form a huge supercontinent.When you space satisfied with the right of the continents, talk about the evidence with her classmates and decide if the proof is compelling or not. Define your decision and also reasoning top top the evidence.Pangea began to rest apart about 200 Ma leading to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Utilizing the map in figure 1.3, calculate the spreading price of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in mm/yr. (Hint: measure up the distance from the easternmost guideline of south America come the inside curve of western Africa).____________________Table 1.2 – Symbol vital to number 1.2SymbolDescription
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The continents are surrounded through the continental shelf (stippled pattern), which extends past the continent till there is a big change in slope.
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By around 300 million year ago, a unique ar of plants had actually evolved, well-known as the europe ora. Fossils of this plants are uncovered in Europe and other areas. Color the areas with this fossils yellow.
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Fossils of the fern Glossopteris have actually been found in this locations. Color the areas with this fossils green.
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Fossil continues to be of the half-meter-long fresh or brackish water (reptile) Mesosaurus. Mesosaurs thrived in the early Mesozoic Era, about 240 million year ago. Mesosaurs had limbs for swimming however could additionally walk ~ above land. Various other fossil evidence uncovered in rocks along with Mesosaurs indicates that they stayed in lakes and seaside bays or estuaries. Shade the areas with these fossils blue.
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Fossil continues to be of Cynognathus, a floor reptile around 3 meters long that lived during the early on Mesozoic Era about 230 million years ago. It was a weak swimmer. Shade the areas with these fossils orange.
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Fossil proof of the beforehand Mesozoic, land-dwelling reptile Lystrosaurus. Lock reproduced by laying eggs on land. Also, your anatomy argues that these animals were probably really poor swimmers. Shade the locations with this fossils brown.
Figure 1.2 – Continent cut-outs for exercise 1.1. Picture credit: native the USGS, public Domain.

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Figure 1.3 – empty map of the south Atlantic s for practice 1.1. Picture credit:Daniel Hauptvogel, CC BY-NC-SA.
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Figure 1.4 – This map reflects the ar of volcanoes that have been active within the past 10,000 years (red triangles). Map scale recommendation is 30° latitude. Image credit:Daniel Hauptvogel, CC BY-NC-SA.
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Figure 1.5 – This map shows the locations of all earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4.5 because that the year 2015 and also 2016. The colors show earthquake depth; red 100 km. Please keep in mind that countless red dots are overlaid by green dots ~ above this map. Map scale reference is 30° latitude. Photo credit:Daniel Hauptvogel, CC BY-NC-SA.

Each kind of plate boundary has unique earthquake and volcanic patterns. Using observational and critical thinking skills, prize the following questions:

Observe the patterns amongst the earthquake and also volcano location maps (Figures 1.4-1.5). Hypothesize whereby you think the major plate boundaries exist and draw those limits on the blank map in number 1.6 using three various colors to recognize the kind of movement for each border (example: red because that divergent boundaries, blue because that convergent boundaries, and also green for transform boundaries).Which form of boundary (divergent, convergent, or transform) is the many abundant? ______________________________________On the exact same map whereby you attracted in plate borders (Figure 1.6), recognize locations wherein each form of these borders are located:Continent-Continent Convergence (CCC)Ocean-Ocean Convergence (OOC)Continent-Ocean Convergence (COC)Continent-Continent divergence (CCD)Ocean-Ocean divergence (OOD)Continent-Continent change (CCT)What type of plate boundary is associated with many of the deep earthquakes?______________________Describe the pattern in earthquake depth indigenous the coastline to inland in ~ subduction zones.

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Figure 1.6 – This is a empty map of the human being to be offered in exercise 1.2. Map scale reference is 30° latitude. Picture credit:Daniel Hauptvogel, CC BY-NC-SA.

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Figure 1.7 – plate tectonic map of south America and nearby plates. Boundaries significant with triangles represent convergent zones. 2 arrows in opposing directions show divergent boundaries. Transform boundaries have arrows showing motion to both right and left. Red and white colors stand for high elevations, greens and also yellow represent lower elevations, and also purple and blue represent locations below sea level. Picture credit: Tectonic boundary map drawn using GPlates software.Table 1.3 – Earthquake location data native the Chile-Peru Border (data indigenous Martinod et al., 2010)Distance native trench (km)Depth (km)
16010
20030
22050
30065
370125
500190
300100
25065
21040
28080
450175
400140
410150
Table 1.4 – Earthquake ar data from main Chile (data from Martinod et al., 2010)Distance native trench (km)Depth (km)
10010
17040
22065
40090
20050
12020
500110
35085
30075
25060
28075
20055
26090