a. A little amount of energy is created by substrate level phosphorylation; many is created by oxidative phosphorylation.

You are watching: The chemical bonds of carbohydrates and lipids have high potential energy because:

b. A tiny amount of power is created by oxidative phosphorylation; most is developed by substrate level phosphorylation.

c. An equal amount is created by oxidative and also substrate level phosphorylation.

d. It relies on the organism. Some develop most the their energy by substrate level phosphorylation, and some produce most that their energy by oxidative phosphorylation.

e. None of this answer options accurately explains energy production throughout cellular respiration.


A

4. In the first three stages of moving respiration, the chemical energy in glucose is transferred to:

a. ATP and cytochrome b.

b. Electron carriers and ATP.

c. Cytochrome b and also coenzyme Q.

d. Proton pumps and ATP.

e. Only coenzyme Q.


B

5. True or False: Oxidation is the get of electrons.


B

6. The _____ forms of the electron carriers NAD+/NADH and FADH/FADH2 have actually high potential energy.

a. Oxidized

b. Reduced

c. Phosphorylated

d. Carboxylated

e. None of the answer options is correct.


B

7. In moving respiration, oxygen:

a. Profit electrons and also is an oxidizing agent.

b. Loses electrons and is a to reduce agent.

c. Benefit electrons and also is a reduce agent.

d. Loser electrons and is an oxidizing agent.

e. Nobody of the answer choices is correct.


A

8. In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ to CO2 and oxygen is _____ come water.

a. Oxidized; reduced

b. Reduced; oxidized

c. Deoxygenated; phosphorylated

d. Phosphorylated; deoxygenated

e. Oxidized; oxidized


A

9. The chemistry bonds the carbohydrates and lipids have actually high potential energy because:

a. Castle are strong oxidizing agents.

b. Lock are solid reducing agents.

c. Their electrons are much away from the nuclei of the atoms.

d. They are basic to phosphorylate.

e. Castle are simple to hydrolyze.


C

10. Glycolysis is:

a. Aerobic.

b. Anaerobic.

c. Aerobic in some organisms yet anaerobic in others.

d. Aerobic in part tissues yet anaerobic in others.

e. None of the answer alternatives is correct.


B

11. Which of the following is not one of the network final commodities of glycolysis?

a. Two molecules the pyruvate

b. Two molecules that ATP

c. 2 molecules that NADH

d. Two molecules the acetyl-CoA


D

12. In glycolysis, ATP is synthesized via:

a. Substrate level phosphorylation.

b. Oxidative phosphorylation.

c. Both substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation.

d. Electron carriers.

e. Redox reactions.


A

13. The first phase of glycolysis calls for the input of two ATP molecules. The is therefore:

a. Endergonic.

b. Exergonic.

c. Oxidative.

d. Reducing.

e. No one of the answer alternatives is correct


A

14. Which of the following does not occur during the 3rd phase the glycolysis?

a. Pyruvate production

b. ATP synthesis

c. The deliver of high-energy electrons to NAD+

d. Oxygen consumption

e. No one of the answer alternatives is correct.


D

15. In ~ the end of glycolysis, the carbon molecule originally discovered in the starting glucose molecule space in the type of:

a. One pyruvate molecule.

b. 2 pyruvate molecules.

c. Two ATP molecules.

d. 2 NADH molecules.

e. Four ATP molecules.


B

16. Phosphorylating glucose during phase 1 the glycolysis:

a. Publication phosphorylated glucose native cells.

b. Destabilizes the glucose molecule so that it can be broken down in phase 2.

c. Gives electrons to reduce NAD+ in phase 3.

d. Offers electrons to minimize FADH in phase 3.

e. Nobody of the answer alternatives is correct.


B

17. The 2nd phase the glycolysis:

a. Phosphorylates glucose.

b. Cleaves the phosphorylated glucose and also rearranges the products.

c. Generates ATP through substrate level phosphorylation.

d. Reduces NAD+ to NADH.

e. Generates ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.


B

19. In eukaryotes, acetyl-CoA synthesis takes location in the:

a. Cytoplasm.

b. Outer mitochondrial membrane.

c. Inner mitochondrial membrane.

d. Intermembrane space of mitochondria.

e. Mitochondrial matrix.


E

20. Acetyl-CoA synthesis is an essential step in cellular respiration because:

a. That generates ATP through substrate level phosphorylation.

b. That transfers large numbers the high-energy electrons to electron carriers.

c. It links glycolysis through aerobic respiration.

d. The eliminates toxicity pyruvate indigenous the cell.

e. That is the an initial step in oxidative phosphorylation.


C

21. As soon as a single pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA, the other commodities of the reaction are:

a. CO2 and also ATP.

b. NADH and CO2.

c. ATP and NADH.

d. Pi and also FADH2.

e. FADH2 and ATP.


B

22. During acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate is:

a. Reduced.

b. Oxidized.

c. Phosphorylated.

d. Hydrogenated.

e. Carboxylated.


B

23. Throughout acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate is damaged down right into CO2 and an acetyl group. The CO2 is:

a. Much less oxidized than the acetyl group.

b. An ext reduced 보다 the acetyl group.

c. Much more energetic than the acetyl group.

d. Much less energetic 보다 the acetyl group.

e. None of the answer alternatives is correct


D

24. After acetyl-CoA synthesis, the chemical power of how plenty of carbons of the initial glucose molecule will be convert to chemical energy in the form of ATP in the remaining steps of aerobic respiration?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

e. 5


D

25. During the citric mountain cycle:

a. Fuel molecules are totally reduced.

b. ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation.

c. High-energy electrons are gotten rid of from NAD+ and also FADH.

d. ATP is synthesized through oxidative phosphorylation.


B

26. The citric mountain cycle takes place in the:

a. Cytoplasm.

b. External mitochondrial membrane.

c. Inside mitochondrial membrane.

d. Intermembrane space of mitochondria.

e. Mitochondrial matrix.


E

27. The majority of power generated in the citric acid cycle is in the kind of:

a. ATP via substrate level phosphorylation.

b. GTP via substrate level phosphorylation.

c. Power electrons donated come NAD+ and also FADH.

d. ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.

e. GTP via oxidative phosphorylation.


C

28. The citric acid cycle is a cycle because the starting molecule, _____, is regenerated in ~ the end.

a. Acetyl-CoA

b. Oxaloacetate

c. Fructose 6-diphosphate

d. Pyruvate

e. Citrate


B

29. I m sorry of the following is not an end product because that an acetyl team that enters the citric mountain cycle?

a. ATP

b. NADH

c. FADH2

d. CO2

e. Oxaloacetate


E

30. A solitary molecule of glucose needs _____ "turns" v the citric mountain cycle for its chemical energy to be completely harvested.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

e. 5


B

31. ATP is not generated directly in the citric mountain cycle; instead, an intermediate is an initial generated through substrate-level phosphorylation. The intermediate is:

a. Acetyl-Co

A.

b. GTP.

c. GDP.

d. CAMP.

e. Oxaloacetate.


B

32. Throughout the citric acid cycle, the production of CO2 is a(n) _____ reaction coupled to the production of ____________.

a. Oxidation; NADH

b. Oxidation; ATP

c. Reduction;, NADH

d. Reduction; ATP

e. Oxidation; GTP


A

33. As soon as they have been processed through the citric acid cycle, the acetyl-CoA molecules from a single glucose molecule will certainly produce:

a. 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 4 CO2.

b. 6 NADH, 6 GTP.

c. 6 FADH2, 2 ATP, 6 CO2.

d. 6 GTP, 6 FADH2.

e. 4 CO2, 6 FADH2, 2 ATP


A

34. The protein of the electron carry chain are:

a. Installed in the inside mitochondrial membrane.

b. Embedded in the external mitochondrial membrane.

c. Embedded in both mitochondrial membranes.

d. Located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria.

e. Located in the mitochondrial matrix.


A

35. The final electron acceptor of the electron transfer chain is:

a. Oxygen.

b. Coenzyme Q.

c. NAD+.

d. ATP synthase.

e. Cytochrome C.


A

36. Energy released by delivering electrons follow me the electron transfer chain is stored as potential energy in the form of:

a. ATP.

b. A proton gradient.

c. Redox couples.

d. ATP synthase.

e. Coenzyme Q.


B

37. Coenzyme Q and cytochrome C:

a. Carry high-energy electrons between protein complexes the the electron move chain.

b. Transport high-energy electrons from NADH and also FADH2 to protein complexes the the electron deliver chain.

c. Carry electrons come ATP synthase.

d. Transport electrons come oxygen in ~ the end of the electron move chain.

e. No one of the answer alternatives is correct.


A

38. Because of the pumping action of the electron move chain, protons have actually a high concentration in the _____ and also a low concentration in the _____.

a. Intermembrane space; mitochondrial matrix

b. Intermembrane space; cytoplasm

c. Mitochondrial matrix; intermembrane space

d. Mitochondrial matrix; cytoplasm

e. Mitochondrial matrix; extracellular fluid


A

39. For the potential energy of a proton gradient to be converted to the chemical power of ATP, the motion of protons down their electrochemical gradient have to be coupled with ATP synthesis. This coupling is made possible by:

a. ATP synthase.

b. Coenzyme Q.

c. Cytochrome C.

d. Oxygen.

e. Protein complex IV.


A

40. A high-energy electron from NADH entering the electron move chain would travel amongst components of the chain in what sequence?

a. Facility I, coenzyme Q, facility III, cytochrome C, complex IV, oxygen

b. Complex I, coenzyme Q, complex III, cytochrome C, ATP synthase, oxygen

c. Facility II, cytochrome C, facility IV, cytochrome C, oxygen

d. Complicated II, coenzyme Q, complicated IV, cytochrome C, ATP synthase, oxygen

e. Facility I, coenzyme Q, facility II, cytochrome C, complicated III, coenzyme Q, complicated IV, cytochrome C, oxygen


A

41. I m sorry of the following correctly characterizes the F1 subunit that ATP synthase?

a. The is installed in the within mitochondrial membrane.

b. It forms the channel v which proton flow.

c. The is the catalytic unit the synthesizes ATP.

d. No one of these answer choices correctly characterizes the F1 subunit of ATP synthase.


C

42. I beg your pardon of the following ideal describes just how ATP synthase counter the potential power of the proton gradient come the chemical energy of ATP?

a. Kinetic power from the flow of proton is convert to the kinetic energy of rotation that the F0 subunit; this is transferred to the F1 subunit and also used come catalyze ATP synthesis.

b. The flow of protons v the F0 subunit reduces the F1 subunit, which permits ADP to it is in oxidized come ATP.

c. The flow of protons through the F0 subunit oxidizes the F1 subunit, which enables ADP to be diminished to ATP.

d. Kinetic power from the flow of proton is stored in a brand-new electrochemical gradient in ~ the F0 subunit. The potential power of the electrochemical gradient, in turn, is converted to kinetic power in the F1 subunit and also used come catalyze ATP synthesis.

e. Nobody of this answer alternatives accurately describes how ATP synthase switch the potential power of the proton gradient to the chemical power of ATP.


A

43. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in (select all correct answer options):

a. Animals and plants.

b. Plants and bacteria.

c. Bacteria and also animals.

d. Fungi and also bacteria.

e. Animals and also fungi


C

44. Fermentation wake up in:

a. Anaerobic organisms only.

b. Part aerobic organisms, such together yeast, even in the visibility of oxygen.

c. Just in bacteria, fungi, and also plants.


B

45. Fermentation take away place:

a. In the cytoplasm.

b. Top top the inside mitochondrial membrane.

c. Top top the outer mitochondrial membrane.

d. In the intermembrane an are of mitochondria.

e. In the mitochondrial matrix.


A

46. Starting with glycolysis, lactic acid and ethanol fermentation generate only two ATP every glucose molecule. The continuing to be chemical energy from the glucose is discovered primarily in:

a. GTP.

b. NADH.

c. FADH2.

d. Lactic acid and also ethanol.

e. CO2.


D

47. During fermentation, pyruvate is:

a. Oxidized.

b. Reduced.

c. Phosphorylated.

d. Hydrogenated.

e. Carboxylated


B

48. Which was likely the very first of the complying with metabolic pathways or frameworks to evolve?

a. Fermentation

b. The citric mountain cycle

c. Electron deliver complexes I, II, and also III

d. ATP synthase

e. All 4 probably occurred at the very same time in very early prokaryote.


A

49. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation:

a. Regenerates NAD+ indigenous the reduction of pyruvate.

b. Regenerates NAD+ indigenous the oxidation the pyruvate.

c. Generates ATP indigenous the oxidation the pyruvate.

d. Generates ATP indigenous the reduction of pyruvate.

e. None of the answer options is correct.


A

50. Lactic acid and ethanol fermentation different in that:

a. FADH2 is oxidized come FADH in lactic mountain fermentation, however NADH is oxidized come NAD+ in ethanol fermentation.

b. NADH is oxidized come NAD+ in lactic mountain fermentation, yet FADH2 is oxidized to FADH in ethanol fermentation.

c. Lactic acid fermentation produces ATP by substrate level phosphorylation, yet ethanol fermentation walk not.

d. Ethanol fermentation produces ATP through substrate level phosphorylation, yet lactic acid fermentation walk not.

e. Ethanol fermentation produce CO2, yet lactic acid fermentation does not.


E

51. Some contemporary bacteria usage a device of anaerobic respiration characterized by one electron move chain analogous to that discovered in aerobic organisms. I beg your pardon of the complying with correctly characterizes the anaerobic electron deliver chain?

a. It offers oxygen as a last electron acceptor.

b. It is installed in the outer mitochondrial membrane fairly than the inner mitochondrial membrane.

c. It creates a proton gradient in between the cytoplasm and also the extracellular fluid.

d. It creates a proton gradient in between the intermembrane room and the cytoplasm.

e. Nobody of these answer alternatives accurately characterizes the anaerobic electron transfer chain.


C

52. Excess glucose is save on computer in large branched molecule of:

a. Glycogen in animals.

b. Starch in bacteria.

c. Strength in animals.

d. Glycogen in plants.

e. Glycogen and starch in both animals and plants.


A

53. The breakdown of fatty acids takes location via a process called:

a. Glycolysis.

b. Beta-oxidation.

c. Oxidative phosphorylation.

d. Fatty mountain phosphorylation.

e. Beta-carboxylation.


B

54. Us consume a variety of carbohydrate that room digested into a selection of different sugars. Just how do these various sugars go into glycolysis?

a. All sugars room converted to fructose 6-phosphate and also enter glycolysis at phase 1, step 3.

b. All sugars are converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and also enter glycolysis at step 3, step 6.

c. Every sugars are converted to glucose 6-phosphate and also enter glycolysis at phase 1, action 2.

d. Sugars room converted to assorted forms and enter glycolysis at assorted stages.

e. None of the answer alternatives is correct.


D

55. We have the right to tell native their structure that fatty acids space a an excellent source the energy since of:

a. The high potential energy of the carboxylic acid group.

b. The huge number that carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds castle contain.

c. Your hydrophobic nature conferred by your chemical formula.

d. Their three-dimensional bonding structure.

e. Nobody of the answer options is correct.


B

56. Beta-oxidation of fat acids walk not produce:

a. Acetyl-CoA.

b. High-energy electrons moved to NAD+.

c. High-energy electrons transferred to FADH.

d. ATP.


D

57. Proteins deserve to be damaged down for energy. They space typically broken down into amino acids, i beg your pardon then enter cellular respiration via:

a. Glycolysis or ethanol fermentation.

b. Lactic acid fermentation or the citric acid cycle.

c. Glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.

See more: E(P=R-C)M - The Ivy Case System

d. Electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation.


C

58. I beg your pardon of the following correctly perform the approximate number of ATP produced by (i) beta-oxidation that a 16-carbon fatty acid, (ii) glycolysis and also fermentation of a single glucose, and (iii) aerobic respiration that a single glucose, in the order?

a. 106, 2, 32

b. 75, 10, 25

c. 50, 10, 20

d. 40, 10, 20

e. 100, 1, 10


A

59. The enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) is assumed of together a metabolic "valve" that regulates the price of glycolysis. I beg your pardon of the adhering to correctly identifies its allosteric activators and inhibitors and their actions?

a. ADP―activator; ATP―activator

b. AMP―activator; CoQ―inhibitor

c. ATP―activator; AMP―inhibitor

d. ADP―activator; citrate―inhibitor;

e. CoQ―activator; citrate―inhibitor


D

60. During a lengthy bout of sustained exercise, in i m sorry order will your body’s power stores/sources be used?

a. ATP save in muscle, glycogen save in muscle, glycogen stored in the liver, fat acids

b. ATP save in muscle, glycogen save in the liver, glycogen stored in the muscle, fatty acids

c. ATP stored in muscle, fat acids, glycogen save in the muscle, glycogen save in the liver

d. Glycogen save in muscle, ATP save in the muscle, glycogen save in the liver, fatty acids

e. Fatty acids, glycogen stored in the liver, glycogen save in the muscle, ATP stored in the muscle


A

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