The legless condition that is observed in several teams of extant reptiles is the an outcome of A) their common ancestor having actually been legless. B) a shared adaptation come an arboreal (living in trees) lifestyle. C) number of instances the the legless condition arising independently of each other. D) separation, personal, instance lizards adapting to a fossorial (living in burrows) lifestyle during their lifetimes.

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The various taxonomic levels (namely, genera, classes, etc.) the the hierarchical classification system differ from each various other on the basis of A) just how widely the organisms assigned to each are spread throughout the environment. B) their inclusiveness. C) the relative genome sizes of the organisms assigned to each. D) morphological personalities that are applicable to every organisms.
If biology A, B, and C belong come the same class but to different orders and also if organisms D, E, and F belong come the very same order however to various families, i m sorry of the adhering to pairs the organisms would certainly be meant to show the greatest level of structural homology? A) A and also B B) A and C C) B and D D) C and also F E) D and also F
Linnaeus was a "fixist" who thought that types remained solved in the kind in which they had actually been created. Linnaeus would have been uncomfortable with A) classifying organisms utilizing the morphospecies concept. B) the scientific discipline known together taxonomy. C) phylogenies. D) nested, ever-more inclusive category of organisms. E) a hierarchical classification scheme.
Which that the following is (are) problematic as soon as the goal is to construct phylogenies that accurately reflect evolution history? A) polyphyletic taxa B) paraphyletic taxa C) monophyletic taxa D) 2 of the responses are correct.
Which individual would make the worst systematist? One that is uncomfortable with the A) Linnaean system of classification. B) notion of hypothetical phylogenies. C) PhyloCode method of classification. D) concept of long-term polytomies.
The hatchet homoplasy is most applicable to which the the adhering to features? A) the legless condition found in assorted lineages of extant lizards B) the five-digit problem of person hands and also bat wing C) the β hemoglobin genes of mice and also of humans D) the fur that consist of Australian moles and also North American mole E) the skeletal of bat forelimbs and also the skeletal of bird forelimbs
If, someday, an archaean cell is found whose rRNA succession is an ext similar to that of human beings than the succession of computer mouse rRNA is to that of humans, the best explanation because that this obvious discrepancy would be A) homology. B) homoplasy. C) usual ancestry. D) retro-evolution by humans. E) coevolution that humans and also that archaean.
The ideal classification device is the which most closely A) unites organisms that possess comparable morphologies. B) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices. C) shows evolutionary history. D) shows the simple separation of prokaryotes indigenous eukaryotes.
Which that the adhering to pairs are the best examples the homologous structures? A) skeleton in the bat wing and also bones in the person forelimb B) owl wing and also hornet wing C) bat wing and bird wing D) eyelessness in the Australian mole and eyelessness in the phibìc American mole
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family members (Ursidae) yet place the lesser panda in the raccoon family members (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of this two species are probably as result of A) inheritance of got characteristics. B) sexual selection. C) inheritance the shared acquired characters. D) possession of analogous structures. E) possession of shared primitive characters.
The importance of computers and also of computer software to contemporary cladistics is most closely linked to breakthroughs in A) light microscopy. B) radiometric dating. C) fossil discovery techniques. D) Linnaean classification. E) molecular genetics.
Which mutation should the very least require realignment of homologous regions of a gene the is typical to several related species? A) three-base insertion B) one-base substitution C) four-base insertion D) one-base deletion E) three-base deletion
The typical ancestors the birds and mammals were an extremely early (stem) reptiles, which practically certainly possessed three-chambered understanding (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and also mammals, however, are alike in having actually four-chambered understanding (two atria, 2 ventricles). The four-chambered mind of birds and mammals are ideal described together A) structural homologies. B) vestiges. C) homoplasies. D) the an outcome of common ancestry. E) molecule homologies.
Which that the following is true of all horizontally oriented phylogenetic trees, where time advances to the right? A) each branch allude represents a allude in pure time. B) Organisms stood for at the base of such trees space descendants that those represented at higher levels. C) The under branch points that occur in between two taxa, the much more divergent your DNA sequences should be. D) The typical ancestor represented by the rightmost branch allude existed an ext recently in time than the common ancestors represented at branch points located to the left. E) The much more branch points there are, the under taxa are most likely to it is in represented.
When utilizing a cladistic technique to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification? A) mutual primitive personalities B) analogous primitive personalities C) common derived personalities D) the variety of homoplasies E) as whole phenotypic similarity
Cladograms (a form of phylogenetic tree) built from evidence from molecule systematics are based upon similarities in A) morphology. B) the sample of embryological development. C) biochemical pathways. D) habitat and also lifestyle choices. E) mutations to homologous genes.
There is some proof that reptiles called cynodonts may have had whisker-like hairs approximately their mouths. If true, climate what have the right to be appropriately said that hair? A) the is a shared derived character of mammals, even if cynodonts continue to it is in classified as reptiles. B) the is a shared obtained character the the amniote clade, and also not the the mammal clade. C) the is a shared ancestral character that the amniote clade, yet only if cynodonts space reclassified as mammals. D) that is a shared acquired character the the mammals, yet only if cynodonts space reclassified together mammals.
A researcher wants to determine the genetic relatedness of several breeds that dog (Canis lupus familiaris). The researcher should compare homologous sequences of this kind of biochemical________which can be defined as ________. A) fatty acids; extremely conserved B) lipids; poorly conserved C) proteins; very conserved D) amino acids; very conserved E) nucleic acids, poorly conserved
Concerning growth in genome size over evolution time, which of this is least associated with the others? A) orthologous genes B) gene duplications C) paralogous gene D) gene families
Nucleic acid sequences that undergo couple of changes end the food of evolution time are claimed to it is in conserved. Conserved assignment of main point acids A) are found in the most crucial portions of proteins. B) incorporate all mitochondrial DNA. C) are plentiful in ribosomes. D) are proportionately more common in eukaryotic bio introns than in eukaryotic bio exons. E) make up a bigger proportion the pre-mRNA (immature mRNA) than of maturation mRNA.
Species that space not very closely related and also that execute not share many anatomical similarities deserve to still be placed together ~ above the very same phylogenetic tree through comparing your A) plasmids. B) mitochondrial genomes. C) homologous gene that are poorly conserved. D) homologous gene that are highly conserved.
Which kind of DNA should carry out the finest molecular clock because that determining the evolutionary relatedness of several types whose typical ancestor became extinct billions of years ago? A) that coding because that ribosomal RNA B) intronic DNA belonging come a gene who product performs a an important function C) paralogous DNA that has lost its function (i.e., no much longer codes for practical gene product) D) mitochondrial DNA E) exonic DNA that codes for a noncrucial part of a polypeptide
A phylogenetic tree created using sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA would certainly be many valid for discerning the evolution relatedness that A) archaeans and also bacteria. B) fungi and animals. C) chimpanzees and humans. D) sharks and dolphins. E) mosses and also ferns.
The lakes of northern Minnesota are residence to many comparable species the damselflies that the genus Enallagma that have actually apparently undergone speciation from ancestral stock due to the fact that the critical glacial retreat around 10,000 years ago. Sequencing i beg your pardon of the following would more than likely be most beneficial in sorting out evolutionary relationships among these closely related species? A) nuclear DNA B) mitochondrial DNA C) tiny nuclear RNA D) ribosom RNA E) amino mountain in proteins
Which statement to represent the finest explanation for the observation that the atom DNA that wolves and also domestic dogs has actually a really high degree of sequence homology? A) Dogs and also wolves have very similar morphologies. B) Dogs and wolves belong to the exact same order. C) Dogs and wolves room both members of the stimulate Carnivora. D) Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor really recently.
The factor that paralogous genes have the right to diverge from each other within the exact same gene pool, vice versa, orthologous genes diverge only after gene pools room isolated from every other, is the A) having actually multiple copies of genes is vital for the occurrence of sympatric speciation in the wild. B) paralogous genes can take place only in diploid species; thus, they are missing from most prokaryotes. C) polyploidy is a essential precondition for the event of sympatric speciation in the wild. D) having actually an extra copy of a gene permits modifications to the copy there is no loss that the initial gene product.
Paralogous gene that have lost the role of coding for any functional gene product are well-known as "pseudogenes." i m sorry of this is a valid prediction about the fate the pseudogenes over evolutionary time? A) They will be maintained by natural selection. B) They will be highly conserved. C) they will at some point regain their original function. D) They will be transformed into orthologous genes. E) They will have fairly high mutation rates.
The most important feature that permits a gene to act together a molecular clock is A) having actually a large number of basic pairs. B) having actually a bigger proportion that exonic DNA 보다 of intronic DNA. C) having a reliable mean rate the mutation. D) that recent beginning by a gene-duplication event. E) its gift acted ~ above by natural selection.

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Neutral theory proposes the A) molecule clocks are more reliable once the neighboring pH is close to 7.0. B) most mutations of extremely conserved DNA assignment should have actually no functional effect. C) DNA is much less susceptible to mutation once it codes because that amino acid sequences who side groups (or R groups) have a neutral pH. D) DNA is less susceptible to mutation when it codes for amino acid sequences who side teams (or R groups) have actually a neutral electrical charge. E) a far-reaching proportion of mutations space not acted ~ above by organic selection.
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