There room four different techniques to assists procedure analysis and design: FLOWCHARTS, TIME function MAPPING, process CHARTS, value STREAM MAPPING, and also SERVICE BLUEPRINTING.

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4.G.1. Flowchart.

Definition: A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic depiction of a process. Each step in the process is represented by a various symbol and contains a quick description the the process step. The flow chart symbols space linked along with arrows showing the procedure flow direction.

A flowchart helps to clarify how things are right now working and how they might be improved. It likewise assists in recognize the vital elements the a process, while illustration clear lines in between where one process ends and the next one starts.

Types the flowcharts:

Top-down Flowchart: In this kind of flowchart only the most simple steps the the process are included (no an ext than 5 or 6 steps). Major steps are consisted of at the peak of the flowchart in the order the hey occur in the process. Under each major step there space sub-steps provided in chronological stimulate too.

The top-down flowchart have the right to be offered for planning new processes too as analyzing existing ones. It helps keep people focused ~ above the whole process instead of obtaining lost in details. Details have the right to be cleared up by the team members responsible because that that part of the process.


Deployment Flowchart: While the top-down flowchart speak what, the deployment chart reflects both what and who. It shows how the people affiliated fit together and also keep track of what each person or company is claimed to do. In the peak of the flowchart the names of the world or organization involved in the process are listed. Under each name us can uncover the process which they are related with. If any of the other people or groups help or recommend the ones with main responsibility for the step, over there is one oval under the name of those people or groups that is connected with the process step.

The completed chart tells not only just how the process operates at each step, but who is involved and what obligation they every have.


Detailed Flowchart: Generally top-down and also deployment charts are enough to study a process, however sometimes teams need more detail to view where difficulties are occurring. A detailed flowchart reflects what actually happens at each action in the process in detail and what happens when non-standard occasions occur. It likewise displays graphically procedures so it is feasible to watch redundancies and other wasted effort.

In this kind of flowchart a summary of the procedure step can be found inside every symbol. Symbols are associated with arrows mirroring the direction that flow. Each symbol need to represent just one action or one yes-no decision. This is what offers the thorough flowchart its detail. The is also what makes the production of thorough flowcharts for this reason time consuming.

A thorough flowchart deserve to be a powerful tool for evaluating a procedure that has built up needless complexity, however be warned. Producing all this detail is time-consuming.


Flowchart Symbols:

Terminator: one oval circulation chart shape indicating the start or end of the process.Process: show a procedure or activity step. This is the most typical symbolDecision: shows a question or branch in the process flow. Typically, a Decision flowchart shape is used when there room 2 alternatives (Yes/No, No/No-Go, etc.)Connector: his prize is typically small and is supplied as a Connector to display a jump from one point in the procedure flow come another. Connectors room usually labeled with capital letters (A, B, AA) come show matching jump points.Data: A parallel that indicates data entry or calculation (I/O) because that a process.Document: offered to suggest a paper or report.Flow Line: flow line connectors present the direction that the process flows.


Example of flowchart:

4.G.2. Time function mapping

A special type of the circulation chart is the time function map. It is composed of a flowchart with responsible parties on the upright axis (deployment flowchart) and also a time line on the horizontal axis. The is especially advantageous in identifying time consuming actions in a process and where many time is lost in waiting and movement. Waste consists of inspection (if the job is excellent properly, climate inspection is unnecessary; transportation(movement of product within a process may be a necessary evil, yet it add to no value);delay (an asset sit idle and also taking up space is waste; warehouse (unless component of a curing process, storage is waste).A time function map is really effective in baselining a process where the target is to mitigate the cycle line or the wait time. Through a time role map you can deal with the same questions similar to a flowchart however in enhancement ask: Why go each step take so long to complete?.

4.G.3. Procedure charts.

The charting of work flows, working processes, systems and also procedures is a useful means of record the crucial features the a work case for succeeding analysis.

Process Charts are one of the simpler forms that workflow charting and are still in constant usage but are less common than they as soon as were. This is unfortunate since it was the common nature the the process chart the made it a usual “language” in between different teams of civilization and throughout different industries.

A range of process charts has been draft to meet the requirements of a specific level or phase of analysis; they can be supplied at a detailed level (recording task at a certain work terminal or workplace), but also at the broader system, procedure or procedure level.

The various kinds of procedure chart re-superstructure a common core set of symbols, though part have additional symbols for certain and specialised procedure steps. The usual symbols (of which over there are just five) were very first promulgated by the American society of mechanical Engineers and also have end up being known as the ASME symbols.

These symbols space simply connected together in a vertical graph representing the an essential stages in a process; it is normal to ar a comment in an adjoining pillar recording contextual/environmental information. E.g. Against a deliver symbol would be recorded, start of journey, finish of journey, distance and also mode the transport.

The simplest kind of procedure chart is known as an outline process chart and records review or summary of a process. Just those steps of a procedure that can be stood for by the ASME symbols of operation and inspection space recorded. One outline process chart is frequently a useful an initial step to identify vital areas that concern before recording (part of) the procedure in much more detail.

In a “full” procedure chart, where all symbols room used, that is usual to chart the process from the “viewpoint” the the material being processed, the worker transporting out the job-related or, less commonly, a item of equipment. Thus, the same symbols deserve to be offered in various ways. Together a basic example, a item of devices can be represented on an equipment-type flow procedure chart together a hold-up because that is no in use; if a material-type flow process chart that the same procedure would display the product being transported come the following work station, and also a man-type chart could show the operator affiliated in an additional operation on an additional machine.

The chart to it is in used might be established by the objective of the investigation or through the family member costs involved in the procedure – a highly capital-intensive procedure may focus an ext attention ~ above the tools being used.

Process charts may additionally be used at a more micro level that analysis. An example is the two-handed procedure chart which records the activities performed by both hands during a task. The succession of motion of each hand is charted utilizing the very same symbols as before. There room slight transforms to the meaning of the symbols, however. The hold-up symbol is offered to indicate that the hand is waiting to bring out its next task. The storage symbol is offered to show that the hand is hold on to a piece of material or a document. Two-handed process charts space usually drawn on a pre-formatted diagram. Their use has generally been superseded by the analyses associated in the usage of short level pre-determined motion times systems. Left-hand-right-hand charts are valuable in assessing the work-related performed by one human being at one specific workstation. Together the name implies, the chart adheres to the motion of the left and right hand of one operator.

Consequently, it is applicable only as soon as one operator is performing repetitive work- normally at one station.

4.G.4. Worth Stream Mapping

A worth stream can be defined as all the procedures – both value included and no value included – required to take it a product or business from the raw materials state and also deliver it come a customer.

Through the usage of this technique, it is possible to isolation those measures that impact the procedure but execute not add any value to it, hence leading to a shed in effectiveness and, finally, profitability.

There room some basic steps to follow once we develop value stream maps, in bespeak to take it full benefit from them:

Step 1: identify the Product Family: The first step is to determine the product household you great to map. The device to use for this is a PQPR (Product quantity / Product Routing) matrix. This device will aid you determine which product or in some cases products to emphasis in on.

Step 2: produce a present State value Stream Map: Once determined what to map friend must collection off and also create a existing state worth stream map. Together the name implies, the suggest is to describe how things look today. We are not interested in exactly how things “should” look or were “designed” to look.

Step 3: create a Future State value Stream Map: Now that we have a better understanding of the present state of affairs, we are ready to attract a picture of how we would choose things come look in the future. At this point, you need to imagine the perfect workplace and also detail it.

Step 4: develop an activity Plan: currently that us know just how things are working today and how us would favor to watch them working in the future it’s time to kind a plan.

Once defined why the is necessary to count on worth Stream Mapping, and also how come organize lock in order to acquire the info needed for the company, that is time to focus on just how to develop this kind of maps:

Step 2.1: calculate takt time: This value reflects the typical unit manufacturing time essential to satisfy customer demand. Commercial manufacturing currently must have production cycle time at the very least as short as the takt time for this reason that production can meet the customer demand. Because that example, if the customer wants to buy 10 units per week, the mean time to develop an unit have to be 4 hrs (or less) if the systems are constructed during a 40 hour work week.

Step 2.2: draw in the client details: In the appropriate of the document, draw a box representing our customer and also their monthly and/or daily demand together with the takt time together calculated before.

Step 2.3: emphasis on the product flow: emphasis on the material flow side of things first. This includes the procedure boxes and also data boxes. In those boxes, the is vital to compose down the quantity of employees who are performing that part of the procedure and how much time it is invested in them. These processes are claimed to add value to the product.

Step 2.4: add the Inventory/Wait Times: once you have all the procedure and data boxes in, that time to include in inventory and/or wait times. Because that inventory, we simply count the variety of pieces in in between the processes and note them.

We likewise want to convert these pieces right into days’ supply. To carry out this, we divide the variety of pieces by the average daily demand, which we supplied to calculate takt time. Us will note this number on ours timeline come be added in a future step.

This is the target time which we want to reduce, as it is wasting resources and not including any sort of value to the product.

Step 2.5: attract in the info flow: In addition to learning about how product flows we additionally want come understand exactly how information flows.

For example, if that is moves about electronically, we usage a lightning bolt looking arrowed line, whereas if that is connected manually we usage a straight arrowed line.

During this step we also draw in ours production manage box. In many mass production systems we frequently see number of manual info (straight) present coming the end of the MRP box aimed straight at each process step box. We also include in the information flow from our customers and also to our suppliers.

Step 2.6: add in the timeline: We deserve to now include the timeline come the bottom the the worth stream map. This experienced tooth looking line helps us different the value added cycle time (taken from data boxes) indigenous the non value added time (days’ or hours’ it is provided info).

The last step in the process is to sum up all the “value-add” bike times and note them in ~ the end of the timeline. Likewise, we also sum increase the “inventory” times and also note the on the timeline. We speak to the complete inventory time the manufacturing lead time (PLT).

To calculate the procedure cycle effectiveness (PCE) we divide the value-add time by the PLT.

4.G.5. Business Blueprinting:

Definition: Is a process analysis method that focuses on the customer and the provider´s interaction with the customer. It have the right to be supplied for developing new innovative services as well as for enhancing existing services. The method is also appropriate for ensuring the quality of organization processes.

It also allows for image of the service development process in its beforehand stages. In each procedure step, call points between client and firm (and physics element, if a tangible service) become visible. It is possible to identify failure points and discover locations for invention as well. This technique eases the identification of cost saving potentials and offers an excellent base for additional Service-process management.

The business Blueprinting is based on the separation that the service into individual processes that have the right to be suspect separately. The process progress graph is portrayed horizontally. Each single component is on a various plane, bespeak vertically. Each airplane represents a level of closeness to the client, the greater the level the closer the interaction level is come the client.

Components of service blueprinting:

Physical Evidence: for each customer activity the physical proof that customers come in contact with is described at the really top that the business blueprint. These room all the tangibles the customers space exposed come that deserve to influence their quality perceptions.

Customer actions: This component shows the decision the the client takes by its very own without the interaction of other person. It consists of steps, choices, activities and interactions that customer performs in the process of purchasing, consuming and evaluating the service

Onstage Contact: These actions are face-to-face actions in between employees and also customers and they room visible to the customer.

Backstage Contact:  Steps and tasks that occur behind the step to assistance onstage activities. Every action and activity in this phase is invisible to the customer.

Support Processes: These are all the tasks carried the end by individuals and also units within the firm who are not contact employees. These activities need to take place in order because that the business to it is in delivered.

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Line that interaction:separates the procedure steps the the service activities that the client carries the end independently

Line the visibility: off the service activities that the client can view from the service activities which are surprise from view. Over the line, the process components that have the right to be seen, heard, scented or regarded are ordered.

Line of interior interaction: separates call employees tasks from those of other service support activities and people