The open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference design is a modular structure for developing standards that are based upon a division of network operations into seven, sets of network services.

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at one time, most sellers agreed to assistance OSI in one type or another, however the OSI was also loosely defined and proprietary standards were as well entrenched. Other than for the OSI-compliant X.400 and X.500 e-mail and also directory standards, which room still widely used, what was once thought to come to be the universal communications standard currently serves as the teaching model for all various other protocols.

Most the the usability in the OSI design exists in all interactions systems, although two or 3 OSI layers might be integrated into one.

Example of how the OSI Layers work-related using one e-mail sent from the computer on the left.

Data travels from the sending computer system down v all the layers come the physical layer whereby the data is placed onto the network cabling, and also then sent to the physical layer that the receiving computer where the procprincetoneclub.orgre reverses and also the data travel up with the layers to the application layer the the receiving computer.

E-mail sent from John:

Meet me at Carl"s 1:30John

E-mail received from John:

Meet me in ~ Carl"s 1:30John

Identify sender and intended receiver; is over there an e-mail application available?APPLICATIONlayer 7

Identified sender and also intended receiver; found e-mail application.

Encode data through X coding key; usage ASCII characters.PRESENTATIONlayer 6Decoded data through X decoding key; offered ASCII characters.
Initiate and terminate the session according to X protocol.SESSIONlayer 5Initiated and also terminated the session follow to X protocol.
Make certain all data is sent out intact.TRANSPORTlayer 4Make sure all data has actually arrived intact.
Keep monitor of how many hops;open shortest route First;Go to IP deal with 3Keep monitor of how plenty of hops;opened the shortest path First;Went to IP deal with
Is the early stage connection collection up? put data right into frames follow to X standard.DATA LINKlayer 2The early connection collection up. Decoded data in framework according to X standard.
Send as electrical signal end the network cable at X voltage, and also X Mbps.PHYSICALlayer 1Receive electric signal over the network cable at X voltage, and X Mbps.


A watch at every of the OSI great , and the duty it plays.

APPLICATIONlayer 7Gives user applications accessibility to network. This layer to represent the services, that straight support the user applications together as software program for file transfers, database access, and also E-mail

The presentation layer, usually component of an operating system, counter incoming and also outgoing data native one presentation format to another. Presentation layer services include data encryption and also text compression.

SESSIONlayer 5Opens manages, and closes conversations between two computers. That performs surname recognition and also the features such together security, required to enable two applications to connect over the network, likewise provides error handling.

This layer gives transparent move of data between end systems, or hosts, and also is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. The ensures complete data transfer.

Sequences data packets, and also requests retransmission of lacking packets. It also repackages message for more efficient infection over the network.

NETWORKlayer 3Establishes, maintains and terminates network connections. Routes data packets throughout network segments. Converts logical addresses and names right into physical addresses.
DATA LINKlayer 2

Transmits frames the data from computer to computer system on the same network segment. Guarantee the reliability of the physical connect established at layer 1. Standards specify how data frames are well-known and carry out the crucial flow control and also error dealing with at the structure set.

The data link layer is separated into 2 sublayers: The Media accessibility Control (MAC) layer and the Logical connect Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains accessibility to the data and permission to transmit it. The gmbh layer controls framework synchronization, circulation control and also error checking.


The physics layer defines all the electrical and physical specifications because that devices. This has the layout of pins, voltages, and also cable specifications. Hubs, repeaters and network adapters are physical-layer devices.

Defines cabling and connections. Transmits data over the physics media.

Some typical network devices and also protocols and where they are implemented in the OSI model.

NETWORKlayer 3Routers, great 3 (or IP) switches.IP, IPX, NWlink, NetBEUI
DATA LINKlayer 2Bridges and switches, Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the physical layer.

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PHYSICALlayer 1Hubs, repeaters, network adapters, Parallel SCSI buses. Assorted physical-layer Ethernet incorporates both this layer and also the data-link layer. Token ring, FDDI, and IEEE 802.11.-