Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the transport of an electron indigenous a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

You are watching: Which statement best describes how to predict the formula of a stable ionic compound?


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed in between cations and anions.A cation is developed when a steel ion loser a valence electron when an anion is created when a non-metal profit a valence electron. They both accomplish a an ext stable electronic configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids type crystalline lattices, or repeating fads of atoms, with high melt points, and also are frequently soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic compound which disappear in H2O, do the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemistry bond in i m sorry valence electrons are shed from one atom and gained by another. This exchange results in a an ext stable, noble gas digital configuration for both atom involved. An ionic shortcut is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and also an anion. The bond is developed when an atom, frequently a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and also becomes a confident ion, or cation. An additional atom, frequently a non-metal, is able to acquire the electron(s) to come to be a an adverse ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic link is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough room to accept it. The ions produced are oppositely charged and are attractive to one an additional due to electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: one electron is moved from Na to F. The result Na+ and F– ions are electrically attractive to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, room crystalline solids under regular conditions, and also have high melting points. Most of this solids space soluble in H2O and also conduct electrical power when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electrical power in equipment is why this substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example the this type of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable digital states connected with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the two atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the bigger the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the better the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids form when cations and also anions are attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond toughness in an ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and also the components that affect it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is defined as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, however it deserve to be calculated making use of electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main components that add to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and also radius of the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warm into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gaseous ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. It is characterized as the warmth of formation for ion of opposite charge in the gas phase to incorporate into one ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the power released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to kind a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

\textNa^+ (g) + \textCl^- (g) \rightarrow \textNaCl (s) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; \Delta H=-787.3\text kJ/mol

The an adverse sign that the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of together the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction shown above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternative in the crystal lattice of hard NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).

Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally because of the an obstacle in isolating gas ions. The energy value deserve to be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculation theoretically v an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors affecting Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande gift the adhering to model because that lattice energy:

E = - \frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 \pi \epsilon_o r_o (1-\frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge number of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility that the solid; \epsilon _o is the permittivity of totally free space; and also r0 is the distance to the closest ion.

This model emphasizes two main determinants that add to the lattice energy of one ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and the radius, or size, of the ions. The impact of those factors is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice energy increasesas the dimension of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are likewise important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies often tend to be much more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and anions in an ionic compound deserve to be identified by the loss or get of valence electrons crucial in bespeak to attain stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The number of cations and also anions that are an unified in one ionic compound is the simplest ratio of totality integers that have the right to be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any of the aspects of group 18 the the routine table, which room monatomic and, with very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number proportion between facets in a formula of a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion written of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is developed through the transport of one or much more valence electrons, generally from a steel to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that are bound with each other by an attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and also are solids at regular temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and also anions is determined by the number of electrons required to attain stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic ingredient is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we an initial note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to shed its 2 valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to to fill its external shell. Therefore, because that the resulting compound to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio that 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will satisfy the two needs above, the formula because that ionic compounds is frequently presented together the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number ratio of atom with optimistic integers.

Note the the cation always precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the composed form, if the cation name is usually the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –ide, together in the situation of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, its suffix deserve to vary, however is commonly either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of salt phosphate and also calcium nitrite, relying on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– incorporate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– integrate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- combine to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- integrate to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- combine to type Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- combine to type (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– incorporate to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer the valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared in between the ingredient atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is identified by the loved one electronegativities that the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent bond that has actually a partial ionic character to it, as a an outcome of the difference in electronegativity between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the tendency of one atom to lure electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compound are frequently classified by the bonds between constituent atoms. There room multiple type of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are usually presented as the finish loss or gain of one or much more valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, leading to cations and also anions that are held together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of an ionic bond in between lithium and fluorine to kind LiF.


Example the a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, lock share a pair that electrons. However, because fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attractive that common electron pair closer come itself and thus create an electrical dipole. The lowercase greek delta written over the atoms is offered to indicate the visibility of partial charges. This shortcut is considered to have features of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atoms is more complicated than this model illustrates. The bond developed between any type of two atom is not a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have some covalent character because the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic matches covalent character of a link is established by the distinction in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature that the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds space designated as ionic when the ionic facet is better than the covalent element of the bond. Bond that loss in between the 2 extremes, having both ionic and also covalent character, space classified as polar covalent bonds. Together bonds space thought of together consisting the partially charged hopeful and an unfavorable poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character represent points along a continuum, this designations are frequently useful in understanding and comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and also covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds commonly have greater boiling and melting points, and also they are also usually much more soluble in water than covalent compounds.